See a list of members in the Council.
NRF advocates for the retail industry on a wide range of issues, regularly weighing in on legislation being considered by Congress and regulations proposed by federal agencies. NRF’s representation of retailers extends to the courts as well because laws and regulations often become the subject of litigation and because some issues are legal disputes rather than legislative/regulatory matters.
NRF has filed lawsuits of its own, joined retail companies or other trade associations in doing so, and has filed “friend of the court” amicus briefs in a number of lawsuits where the retail industry has an interest. NRF’s legal actions have been filed at levels ranging from trial courts all the way to the U.S. Supreme Court and have often resulted in significant wins for the retail industry.
Below are links to legal briefs NRF has filed, accompanied by news releases and other supporting material where available.
- NRF says trial lawyers have abused auto-dialer phone rule
March 2, 2020
Barr v. American Association of Political Consultants
NRF and the Retail Litigation Center filed a joint amicus brief with the U.S. Supreme Court saying auto-dialer restrictions under the federal Telephone Consumer Protection Act are confusing and outdated and have been exploited by the plaintiffs’ bar. The brief says striking down the provision could end abusive litigation against retailers and other legitimate callers without resulting in an increase in unwanted calls to consumers.
NRF urges California Supreme Court to hold that Dynamex applies only prospectively
January 15, 2020
Gonzalez v. San Gabriel Transit
NRF and other business associations filed a brief asking the California Supreme Court to accept a petition for review in a case concerning the retroactive application of the Court’s 2018 decision in Dynamex. The brief argues Dynamex set forth a wholly new standard for worker classification that no party could reasonably have been required to rely on prior to its issuance and that Dynamex is prospective in its application only and applies only to contracts entered into on or after April 30, 2018.
NRF urges federal district court to overturn unconstitutional California arbitration law
December 6, 2019
Chamber of Commerce of the United States of America et al. v. Becerra et al
NRF filed suit in U.S. District Court challenging the constitutionality of A.B. 51, California’s sweeping anti-arbitration law. NRF and the similarly situated co-plaintiffs asked the court to declare A.B. 51 unconstitutional as it is preempted by federal law and to enjoin its enforcement by the state of California.
- NRF asks appeals court to reaffirm federal ban on secondary boycotts
December 2, 2019
SEIU Local 87 v. NLRB
NRF joined a coalition amicus brief urging the 9th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals to reaffirm that the Taft-Hartley Act’s prohibition on secondary boycotts does not violate the First Amendment. The case concerned several San Francisco janitors from a local union who were fired for picketing the building where they perform work. The National Labor Relations Board held that the workers engaged in unlawful and thus unprotected secondary picketing targeting a neutral employer because the picketers failed to clearly disclose that their dispute was with the janitorial contractors, and not the tenant companies based in the office building. On appeal to the 9th Circuit, the Service Employees International Union raised constitutional concerns.
- NRF says FTC exceeded authority in restitution case
November 20, 2019
AMG Capital Management v. Federal Trade Commission
NRF and the U.S. Chamber of Commerce filed a brief with the U.S. Supreme Court urging the justices to take up a case involving whether the Federal Trade Commission can seek restitution under a section of the FTC Act that authorizes only injunctive relief rather than monetary damages. NRF contends that the FTC has exceeded its authority by doing so and has sought “massive” amounts, including $1.3 billion in the case in question.
NRF urges NLRB to modify standard that currently protects profane and offensive speech
November 12, 2019
NRF joined a coalition amicus brief urging the National Labor Relations Board to change its standard to determine when profane, racist or sexist language loses legal protection under the National Labor Relations Act. The NLRB invited briefs in the case, and briefs were filed by the Equality Employment Opportunity Commission, business groups, and labor unions. The brief argues that the NLRB’s standard should reflect the modern workplace and should be amended so that it is not at odds with other laws, including Title VII of the Civil Rights Act.
- NRF supports Walmart in wage statement case
October 28, 2019
Magadia v. Walmart Inc.
NRF and other business groups filed an amicus brief with the 9th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals in support of Walmart in a case involving wage-rate information that California law requires employers to include on the final pay statements of terminated employees. The plaintiff claimed Walmart violated the law because start dates and end dates were not included in the statements and because overtime pay based on quarterly bonuses was shown as lump sum, but NRF argued that Walmart complied with the law.
- NRF asks Supreme Court to support DACA
October 4, 2019
Department of Homeland Security, et al. v. Regents of the University of California, et al.
NRF and more than 140 businesses and business organizations filed an amicus brief with the U.S. Supreme Court in support of the federal Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals program, saying permanent protections for DACA recipients would benefit the economy.
- NRF asks appeals court to reverse district court’s EEO-1 decision
August 26, 2019
National Women’s Law Center v. Office of Management and Budget
NRF joined a coalition amicus brief urging the D.C. U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals to reverse a U.S. District Court decision to reinstate the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission’s burdensome expansion of the annual EEO-1 report. NRF previously filed an amicus brief in the D.C. District Court asking the court to consider the substantial burden that implementing sweeping new EEOC data requirements would have on employers.
Retailers Ask Supreme Court for Clarity in ADA Website Claims
July 15, 2019
Domino’s Pizza LLC v. Guillermo Robles
NRF and the Retail Litigation Center and NRF filed an amicus brief asking the Supreme Court to take up Domino’s appeal of a ruling on accessibility of its website under the Americans with Disabilities Act.
- NRF asks U.S. District Court to give employers more time to comply with new EEOC reporting requirements
April 3, 2019
National Women’s Law Center v. Office of Management and Budget
NRF filed an amicus brief in U.S. District Court asking the court to consider the substantial burden that implementing sweeping new Equal Employment Opportunity Commission data requirements would have on employers. In 2016, the EEOC expanded its annual EEO-1 report from 180 items concerning employee records to 3,660 for each establishment but the change was blocked by the Office of Management and Budget in 2017 and employers were not required to comply. On March 4, 2019, Judge Tanya Chutkan reinstated the data requirements. The brief filed by NRF and other groups said employers need at least 18 months to merge data systems and file accurate reports.
- NRF asks Supreme Court to hear case on EEOC claim
March 4, 2019
Fort Bend County, Texas. v. Davis
NRF filed an amicus brief asking the U.S. Supreme Court to take up a case on whether a worker who has not raised a discrimination claim as part of an Equal Employment Opportunity Commission case can file a lawsuit in federal court.
- NRF asks Louisiana Supreme Court to rule in online sales tax case
March 1, 2019
Newell Norman, Sheriff and Ex-Officio Tax Collector for the Parish of Jefferson v. Wal-Mart.com USA
NRF filed an amicus brief asking the Louisiana Supreme Court to hear an appeal from Walmart on whether a third-party online marketplace can retroactively be required to collect sales tax.
- NRF tells Supreme Court SNAP purchase data should be confidential
February 21, 2019
Food Marketing Institute v. Argus Leader Media
NRF filed an amicus brief asking the U.S. Supreme Court to rule that purchasing data involving the federal Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program is confidential business information that does not have to be disclosed under the Freedom of Information Act.
- NRF supports Domino’s in ADA web access case
January 15, 2019
Robles v. Domino's Pizza
NRF filed an amicus brief with the 9th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals in support of Domino's Pizza in a website access case brought under the Americans with Disabilities Act.
- NRF supports retailers sued over discount price advertising
December 3, 2018
State of California v. J.C. Penney Corporation Inc.
NRF filed an amicus brief in the California Court of Appeal in support of retailers sued by the Los Angeles County Attorney for advertising that a sale price is a discount from a previous price.
- NRF asks Supreme Court to take up appeal on disclosure of SNAP purchases
November 13, 2018
Food Marketing Institute v. Argus Leader Media
NRF filed an amicus brief asking the U.S. Supreme Court to take up the Food Marketing Institute’s appeal of a ruling that required merchants to disclose purchasing data involving the federal Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program under the Freedom of Information Act. FMI contends that the data is exempt from disclosure and that releasing it would cause competitive harm.
- NRF asks 11th Circuit to reverse ruling in credit card number case
October 31, 2018
Muransky et al. v. Godiva Chocolatier Inc
NRF filed an amicus brief with the 11th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals opposing its ruling against Godiva, which was sued for allegedly violating the federal Fair and Accurate Credit Transactions Act prohibition against printing more than the last five digits of a credit card number on a receipt. The brief argued that the suit should not have been allowed because the plaintiff had not suffered identify theft or other harm.
- NRF asks appeals court to support UPS challenge of ambush election rules
October 22, 2018
UPS Ground Freight v. National Labor Relations Board
NRF filed an amicus brief asking the U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia to support UPS Ground Freight’s challenge of the National Labor Relations Board’s “ambush elections” regulations, saying the rules prioritize speed over due process and fair union elections.
- NRF asks NLRB to block use of employer email for union organizing
October 5, 2018
Caesar’s Entertainment Corporation d/b/a Rio All-Suites Hotel and Casino and International Union of Painters and Allied Trades
NRF filed an amicus brief with the National Labor Relations Board arguing that it should overturn its 2014 Purple Communications decision. NRF said the decision improperly created a new employee right to utilize employer email for union organizing purposes and opened businesses up to unnecessary cyber risks.
- NRF asks Supreme Court to take up data breach case
September 21, 2018
Zappos v. Stevens et al.
NRF filed an amicus brief asking the U.S. Supreme Court to take up a case on whether an individual can sue simply because their credit card information was involved in a data breach even if there is no evidence that they have suffered harm or have an imminent threat of harm.
- NRF opposes Illinois lawsuit over fingerprint identification
September 11, 2018
Stacy Rosenbach v. Six Flags Entertainment Corp. and Great America
NRF filed an amicus brief with the Illinois state Supreme Court arguing that employees required to provide a thumbprint for timekeeping purposes should not be allowed to sue under the state’s Biometric Information Privacy Act if there is no allegation that they were harmed by doing so.
- NRF opposes recusal of NLRB chairman on joint employer decision
August 28, 2018
McDonald’s USA et al. and Fast Food Workers Committee and Service Employees International Union et al.
NRF filed an amicus brief with the National Labor Relations Board in opposition to a motion filed by the Service Employees International Union seeking recusal of NLRB Chairman John Ring and member Bill Emanuel in the McDonald’s joint employer case. NRF believes politicization of the board’s ethics rules is improper and could have lasting negative effects on the board’s ability to carry out its mission.
- NRF opposes creation of micro-union at Boeing facility
July 12, 2018
The Boeing Co. v. International Association of Machinists and Aerospace Workers
NRF filed an amicus brief in support of Boeing’s request for the National Labor Relations Board to review a regional director’s approval of a micro-union at the company’s South Carolina facility. NRF believes micro-unions allow for gerrymandered bargaining units that fracture retail and other workplaces, and NRF has filed briefs in numerous cases to highlight the disruptive nature of these units.
- NRF supports Apple in dispute over bag search time
July 9, 2018
Amanda Frlekin v. Apple
NRF filed an amicus brief in the California state Supreme Court arguing that time spent searching an employee’s bag when leaving work at the end of the day should not be considered payable work time.
- NRF asks Supreme Court to review case on arbitration
Five Star Senior Living and FVEManagers v. Melinda Mandviwala
NRF filed an amicus brief with the U.S. Supreme Court asking the justices to take up a case challenging California’s Private Attorneys General Act, which has been used to circumvent arbitration requirements in labor disputes.
- NRF asks Supreme Court to uphold South Dakota online sales tax law
March 5, 2018
South Dakota v. Wayfair
NRF filed an amicus brief with the U.S. Supreme Court asking the justices to uphold a South Dakota law requiring online retailers with more than $100,000 in annual sales into the state to collect sales tax.
- NRF asks appeals court to throw out class-action lawsuit over handicapped parking
November 20, 2017
Mielo v. Steak ‘n’ Shake
NRF filed an amicus brief asking the 3rd U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals to reverse a U.S. District Court judge’s certification of a national class action lawsuit brought under the Americans with Disabilities Act claiming that the slope of handicapped parking spaces was too steep.
- Retailers ask Supreme Court to take up online sales tax case and recognize ‘realities of the internet age’
November 1, 2017
South Dakota v. Wayfair, Overstock and Newegg
NRF filed an amicus brief asking the U.S. Supreme Court to take up a case involving a South Dakota law requiring online retailers with more than $100,000 in annual sales into the state to collect sales tax.
- NRF asks court to uphold administrative review of patent disputes
October 30, 2017
Oil State Energy Services v. Greene’s Energy Group
NRF filed an amicus brief asking the U.S. Supreme Court to uphold the constitutionality of the “inter partes review” process, which allows many “patent troll” disputes to be heard administratively at the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office without the need to go to court.
- NRF asks Supreme Court to take up joint employer case
July 7, 2017
DirecTV v. Hall
NRF filed an amicus brief asking the U.S. Supreme Court to take up a case involving the 4th Circuit Court of Appeals’ interpretation of when two or more companies can be held jointly liable under the Fair Labor Standards Act. NRF argued that the appellate court’s ruling opened retailers up to seemingly limitless joint employer liability with business partners. The Supreme Court declined to hear the case.
- NRF asks appellate court to overturn NLRB ruling on employee discipline
May 30, 2017
The Organization United for Respect at Walmart v. National Labor Relations Board
NRF filed an amicus brief asking the 9th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals to overturn a National Labor Relations Board ruling that Walmart violated the National Labor Relations Act when it disciplined employees involved in an in-store protest during regular store hours. The brief argued the NLRB’s decision set a dangerous precedent that seriously upsets the careful balance struck by federal labor law, with significant practical consequences for retailers and their customers.
- NRF asks Supreme Court to review California law on arbitration
April 14, 2017
Bloomingdale’s Inc. v. Nancy Vitolo
NRF filed an amicus brief asking the U.S. Supreme Court to review and decide the enforceability of California’s Private Attorneys General Act. NRF said waivers in arbitration agreements under the law have been a significant issue for retailers operating in California. The Supreme Court declined to hear the case.
- NRF asks California Supreme Court to overturn ruling on commissions[SC3]
February 16, 2017
Macy’s West Stores Inc. v. Superior Court of California
NRF filed an amicus brief in support of Macy’s, urging the California Supreme Court to reverse a lower court’s ruling regarding advance commission payment programs. The trial court found that wage statements issued by Macy’s violated California labor law because they did not record when advance commission pay was “actually earned.” NRF previously filed an amicus brief with the California Court of Appeal given the significance of the issue for retailers who pay employees on an advance commission basis.
- NRF asks appellate court to overturn NLRB approval of Volkswagen micro-union
February 2, 2017
Volkswagen Group of America v. National Labor Relations Board
NRF filed an amicus brief asking the Circuit Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia to overturn the National Labor Relations Board’s approval of a micro-union at Volkswagen’s Tennessee plant on the grounds that micro-unions violate the National Labor Relations Act and fracture the workplace.
- RLC and NRF ask full appeals court to hear case on American Express credit card fees
November 15, 2016
United States v. American Express
NRF filed an amicus brief asking the full 2nd U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals to take up a lawsuit over American Express rules that keep retailers from encouraging customers to use other cards with lower processing fees. NRF said the rules are an antitrust violation and have made it difficult for merchants to win lower fees from any of the nation’s major credit card companies.
- NRF asks Supreme Court to take up arbitration case
Epic Systems Corp. v. Jacob Lewis
NRF filed an amicus brief asking the U.S. Supreme Court to take up a case involving the use of arbitration agreements in employment issues. Many retailers rely on arbitration programs to resolve employment claims in a fair and efficient manner. The Supreme Court took the case and ultimately issued a favorable ruling.
- Retailers file suit to block new overtime rule
September 20, 2016
Plano Chamber of Commerce et al. v. Thomas E. Perez
NRF and other business groups filed a lawsuit in U.S. District Court challenging the Obama administration’s sweeping expansion of overtime and obtained an injunction blocking the expansion before it could take effect. NRF argued that the expanded overtime plan would have negatively impacted retailers across the country and limited career opportunities for workers. On August 31, 2017, the court overturned the plan entirely, but by that time it had been withdrawn by the Trump administration Labor Department.
- NRF asks appellate court to allow class action waivers in arbitration agreements[SC4]
July 28, 2016
The Rose Group, d/b/a Applebee’s Restaurant v. National Labor Relations Board
NRF filed an amicus brief asking the 3rd U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals to reject the National Labor Relations Board’s position against class action waivers in mandatory arbitration agreements. The issue is of great significance for many NRF members, and the brief echoed arguments NRF made in support of the Raymours Furniture Company in a separate lawsuit. (See below)
- NRF asks appellate court to uphold mandatory arbitration ruling
June 20, 2016
Patterson v. Raymours Furniture Company Inc.
NRF filed an amicus brief asking the 2nd U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals to affirm a U.S. District Court decision concerning the validity of mandatory arbitration class and collective waivers under the National Labor Relations Act. The brief urged the court to reject the National Labor Relations Board’s position against class action waivers in mandatory arbitration agreements, and the court ruled in the furniture company’s favor in September 2016. The case was one of many that ultimately led to a favorable ruling by the Supreme Court on the issue.
- Retailers file amicus brief in joint employer case
June 15, 2016
Browning Ferris Industries v. National Labor Relations Board
NRF filed an amicus brief with the U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia in a lawsuit challenging a National Labor Relations Board ruling that expanded the traditional definition of a “joint employer” by saying a company could be held responsible for the actions of its subcontractors or franchisees.
- NRF asks appellate court to review NLRB micro-union approval
December 16, 2015
Constellation Brands d/b/a Woodbridge Winery v. National Labor Relations Board
NRF filed an amicus brief asking the 2nd U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals to review the National Labor Relations Board’s controversial Specialty Healthcare decision, which allowed the creation of micro-unions, and the NLRB’s approval of a micro-union at Woodbridge Winery. The brief challenged the Specialty Healthcare decision itself and argued that the full NLRB and an NLRB regional director had misapplied the standard in approving the winery micro-union. The court held that Specialty Healthcare is a permissible framework but that it was improperly applied in this case.
- Retailers urge appeals court to vacate FCC’s TCPA ruling
December 3, 2015
ACA International v. Federal Communications Commission
NRF filed an amicus brief asking the U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia to vacate two provisions of a Federal Communications Commission order that reinterpreted the obligations of businesses under the Telephone Consumer Protection Act. NRF said the provisions would encourage litigation threatening the ability of retailers to legitimately communicate with consumers.
- NRF supports Nordstrom in California ‘day of rest’ case[SC5]
November 30, 2015
Mendoza v. Nordstrom
NRF filed an amicus brief in support of Nordstrom before the California state Supreme Court regarding the proper interpretation of California’s “day of rest” statutes. The court issued a unanimous opinion in May 2017 that provided retailers with much-needed clarity about when their employee schedules comply with California law and preserved employers’ flexibility in scheduling.
- NRF opposes unions projecting messages onto buildings
September 2, 2015
Great Wash Park, d/b/a Tivoli Village v. International Union of Painters and Allied Trades Local 159
NRF filed an amicus brief urging the Nevada Supreme Court to affirm a trial court injunction preserving employer property rights. The case involved a union tactic in which the union projects messages onto the façade of an employer’s building using equipment located on public property. The practice raises unique property, nuisance, and trespass issues, and is of particular significance to customer-facing employers.
- NRF supports fluctuating workweek calculation for overtime[SC6]
July 24, 2015
Lalli v. General Nutrition Centers Inc.
NRF filed an amicus brief in the 1st U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals concerning the fluctuating workweek method of calculating overtime compensation, which is used by many retailers. The brief urged the court to uphold a U.S. District Court ruling that GNC was permitted to utilize the method even though it paid employees a sales commission in addition to a fixed weekly salary. In February 2016, the appeals court issued a favorable opinion preserving employer flexibility in designing compensation plans that incentivize and reward retail employees.
- NLRB micro-union decision causes untold harm to retail
April 27, 2015
Macy’s v. National Labor Relations Board
NRF filed an amicus brief with the U.S. Court of Appeals saying the National Labor Relations Board’s decision to recognize workers in a single department at a Macy’s store in Massachusetts rather than the entire store violated longstanding precedents on union organizing.
- NRF supports challenge to ambush union elections
April 21, 2015
Baker DC v. National Labor Relations Board
NRF filed an amicus brief in U.S. District Court in support of Baker DC, a concrete contractor in Washington, D.C., in its challenge to the National Labor Relations Board’s ambush election rules. The court subsequently upheld the rules on July 29, 2015. Previously, in January 2015, NRF and other associations sued the NLRB seeking to overturn the rules.
- Retailers file amicus brief in micro-union case
January 13, 2015
Nestle Dreyer’s Ice Cream Company v. National Labor Relations Board
NRF filed an amicus brief with the 4th U.S. Court of Appeals in a lawsuit challenging a National Labor Relations Board ruling that allowed the creation of “micro-unions” that could be as small as a single location within a company or a single department within a location.
- NRF sues to overturn NLRB ambush election rules
January 5, 2015
Chamber of Commerce of the United States et al. v. National Labor Relations Board
NRF and other trade associations filed a lawsuit in U.S. District Court to block the National Labor Relations Board’s rules allowing “ambush elections” for union organizing from taking effect. The ambush elections rules significantly shortened the period between a union’s filing of a request for an election and the actual election itself and infringed on both employer and employee rights. The court upheld the rules on July 29, 2015, and the rule remains in effect.
- NRF asks U.S. Supreme Court to review swipe fee ruling
August 18, 2014
NACS, National Retail Federation, Food Marketing Institute, Miller Oil Co., Boscov’s Department Store, and National Restaurant Association v. Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System
NRF filed an appeal with the U.S. Supreme Court asking the justices to overturn a ruling by the U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia. The appellate court ruling upheld the Federal Reserve’s 21-cent cap on debit card transaction fees, which NRF had argued was higher than the amount intended by Congress under the Dodd-Frank Consumer Protection and Wall Street Reform Act.
- Retailers ask appeals court to overturn credit card swipe fee settlement
June 16, 2014
In Re Payment Card Interchange Fee and Merchant Discount Antitrust Litigation
NRF asked the 2nd U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals to overturn a $7.25 billion settlement in a class action antitrust lawsuit over credit card swipe fees, saying the settlement failed to do enough to change the way credit card companies set the fees.
- NRF asks NLRB to block use of employer email in union organizing
June 16, 2014
Purple Communications Inc. v. Communications Workers of America, AFL-CIO
NRF filed an amicus brief with the National Labor Relations Board asking the board to uphold its earlier decision in the Register Guard case and reaffirm that employees do not have any statutory right to use employers’ email or other electronic communications systems for activities such as union organizing.
- NRF calls NLRB recess appointment unconstitutional
National Labor Relations Board v. Noel Canning
NRF filed an amicus brief with the U.S. Supreme Court arguing that President Obama’s use of recess appointments to fill vacancies on the National Labor Relations Board was unconstitutional and that actions taken while questionable appointees were in office should be vacated.
- NRF tells court retailers should be exempt from conflict minerals rule
September 18, 2013
NRF filed an amicus brief with the U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia saying retailers should not be included under regulations requiring manufacturers to determine whether merchandise contains “conflict” gold and other minerals from the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
- NRF and NCCR join coalition legal brief opposing new federal trucking regulations
July 31, 2012
American Trucking Associations v. Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration
NRF filed an amicus brief with the U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia in a lawsuit opposing new federal trucking regulations on drivers’ hours of service set by the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration. NRF said the regulations were arbitrary and capricious.
- NRF and NCCR join legal brief against micro-unions
June 15, 2012
The Neiman Marcus Group d/b/a Bergdorf Goodman v. Local 1102 Retail, Wholesale Department Store Union
NRF filed an amicus brief with the National Labor Relations Board requesting that it reject a request by the Retail, Wholesale and Department Store Union that it certify that workers in the women’s shoe department at the flagship Bergdorf Goodman store in New York City constitute a bargaining unit for union organizing.
- NRF files lawsuit saying Fed didn’t follow law in setting swipe fee regulations
November 22, 2011
NRF filed a lawsuit in U.S. District Court saying the Federal Reserve failed to follow key requirements of a 2010 law when it adopted a flawed cap on debit card swipe fees. NRF said failure allowed big banks to continue charging unjustifiably high swipe fees and has discouraged price competition among credit card networks.